Glossary


  • 100% E.D. - 100% Electrical Duty
  • 1oo2 - 1 out of 2 "Safety" - Redundancy for the process valve closure. Any one out of two solenoid valves needs to de-energise to ensure safety.
  • 2/2- 2 Ports - Inlet and Outlet and 2 positions - Open and Closed
  • 2oo2 - 2 out of 2 "Availability" - Redundancy for the process valve to remain open. Any one out of two solenoid valves needs to remain energised to ensure availability
  • 2oo3 - 2 out of 3 "Safety AND Availability" - Any two channels out of three need to operate to provide safety (process valve closure) and availability (process valve remain open). The RVM system combines the strength of “1oo2” and “2oo2” thus increasing both safety and availability functions.
  • 3/2 - 3 Ports - Inlet, Outlet and Exhaust and 2 positions - Open and Closed
  • 4/2 - 4 Ports - Inlet, Outlet 1, Outlet 2 and a common Exhaust and 2 positions - Outlet 1 or Outlet 2
  • 4/3 - 4 Ports - Inlet, Outlet 1, Outlet 2 and a common Exhaust and 3 positions - Outlet 1, mid position (See APB, COE), Outlet 2
  • 5/2 - 5 Ports - Inlet, Outlet 1, Outlet 2, Exhaust 1 and Exhaust 2 and 2 positions - Outlet 1 or Outlet 2
  • 5/3 - 5 Ports - Inlet, Outlet 1, Outlet 2, Exhaust 1 and Exhaust 2 and 3 positions - Outlet 1, mid position (See APB, COE, COP), Outlet 2
  • AB Rio - Allen Bradley Remote I/O - communication protocol for fieldbus system
  • AC - Alternating current
  • Air spring - Uses air from within the system to return the spool
  • Ambient temperature - The temperature of the air in the surrounding environment
  • APB - All Ports Blocked - All the ports within the valve are blocked
  • ATEX - ATmosphères EXplosibles - this is the directive based around explosion risk and explosive atmospheres
  • B10 - The mean number of operating cycles until up to 10 % of the considered units have failed dangerously
  • Bar - The metric measurement for units of pressure
  • BSI - British Standards Institute
  • BSPP - British Standard Pipe Parallel - usually identified by 'G'
  • BSPT - British Standard Pipe Taper - Usually identified by 'R' for an external and 'Rc' for an internal thread
  • Buna-N - Buna-N also called NBR is a synthetic rubber
  • CANopen - Communication protocol for fieldbus system
  • CCF - Common Cause Failure
  • CEETOP - Comité Européen des Transmissions Oléohydrauliques et Pneumatiques. CETOP is the European Fluid Power Committee
  • CFM - Cubic Feet per Minute - a flow rate mainly used in America 
  • Click-on - Click-on is an easy to assemble, no tools required system used to change the solenoid coils on Buschjost valves
  • Closed Loop - A system with feedback taking into account external influences
  • CNOMO - Comité de Normalisation des Moyens de production - A set of manufacturing standards
  • COE - Centre Open Exhaust - All outlet ports are connected to their exhausts
  • COP - Centre Open Pressure - The Inlet port is connect to both outlet ports
  • COSHH - Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
  • CSA - Canadian Standards Association
  • cSt - Centistokes - a measurement of viscosity
  • Cv - Is a flow coefficient - based on the volume (in US gallons) of water at 60°F that will flow per minute through a valve with a pressure drop of 1 psi across the valve
  • DC - Direct current
  • DCV - Directional Control Valve - normally the 5/2 valve
  • Device Net - Communication protocol for fieldbus system
  • DIN - Deutsches Institut für Normung (the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is the German ISO member body
  • Direct Acting - The solenoid directly operates the workings of the valve
  • CNOMO - Comité de Normalisation des Moyens de production - A set of manufacturing standards
  • dm3/s - decimetres cubed per second - a measurement of flow
  • DSEAR - Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002
  • D-sub - D-sub  or D-Subminiature is a standard electrical connector - Standard sizes are 9, 15, 25, 44 pin layouts
  • EMV - German initials for electromagnetic compatibility
  • Ethernet - Ethernet is the generic name given to a family of industrial ethernet computer network protocols
  • Ethernet/IP - EtherNet/IP is an industrial ethernet network protocol standard managed by ODVA, Inc.
  • Exh - Exhausting
  • Externally Piloted - Where the pilot ( servo assistance ) is fed from outside of the valve directly
  • FAS - Fluid Automation Systems
  • Failure Flow - This is the maximum flow that will pass through a regulator in the event of its total failure. Failure flow is used for sizing relief valves downstream of regulators
  • FDA -The Food and Drug Administration - an American federal agency
  • Fieldbus - Fieldbus is the generic name given to a family of industrial computer network protocols
  • FKM - See also FPM.  These are a range of Fluoroelastomers or Fluoro rubber
  • Flying Leads - An electrical lead, with a connector on one end
  • FPM - See also FKM.  These are a range of Fluoroelastomers or Fluoro rubber
  • FRL - Filter Regulator Lubricator
  • - A measurement of shock, based on multiples of acceleration of gravity
  • G - ISO G thread, also known as BSPP (British Standard Pipe Parallel) internal or external thread to ISO 228
  • Gain - A setting that amplifies the reaction of a device to a given  input signal, typically speeding up or slowing the change of the output
  • Glandless -This technology uses no seals, the parts run on a bed of air giving  long life
  • Hysteresis - The variation between the rising and falling pressure or force - normally found when a mechanical spring is involved
  • I/D - Inside diameter
  • I/O - Input / Output
  • IECEx - IECEx is the IEC System for Certification to Standards Relating to Equipment for Use in Explosive Atmospheres
  • IMI - Imperial Metals Industry
  • Indirect Acting - These valves operate with a pilot principle (servo principle) and make use of the pressure energy of the pilot to operate the valve. The pilot system functions as a booster
  • Individually Wired - This is where each wire of the solenoid is wired directly into the machine / plc
  • In-Line - Where the item is placed in the flow path of the compressed air line
  • Interbus - Communication protocol for fieldbus system
  • Internally piloted - Where the pilot ( servo assistance ) is taken from inside the workings of the valves
  • Intrinsically safe - Is a protection process used with electrical equipment, that limits electrical and thermal energy to below a predefined level
  • IO Link - An open standard according to IEC 61131-9 for communicating of Input and Output devices
  • IP - Ingress Protection - The protection from solids and liquids
  • IP00 - No protection to solids, No protection to liquids
  • IP20 - Protection of solids >12.5mm e.g. Fingers or similar objects, No liquid Protection
  • IP40 - Protection of solids >1mm e.g. Wires and screws, No liquid Protection
  • IP65 - Dust tight, Protection from a water jet
  • IP66 - Dust tight, Protection from a powerful water jet
  • IP67 - Dust tight, Protection from temporary immersion in water up to 1 metre submersion up to 30 minutes
  • IRT - Isochronous Real-Time for PROFINET IO applications in drive systems with cycles times of less than 1 ms
  • ISEM - Intermediate Supply and Exhaust Manifold
  • ISO - The International Organization for Standardization
  • Kv - Is a metric flow coefficient
  • l/min - Litres per minute
  • LABS free - Free of substances causing paint malfunctions
  • LED - Light Emitting Diode
  • Linearity - How close the output is to the perfect theoretical line
  • LOTO - Lock Out Tag Out
  • mA - milli Amp
  • Manifold - A manifold is a type of base that allows valves to be connected to it reducing the number of supply and exhaust fittings and connections required
  • Media / Fluid temperature - The temperature of the fluid inside product
  • micro-fog - Type of lubricator - micro-fog produces a very fine mist of oil
  • milli bar - one thousandth of 1 bar
  • ms - millisecond
  • MS - Brass material designation, most common being, MS58 - CuZn39Pb3 DIN17660 2.0401, EN 12164 CW614N and MS63 - CuZn37 DIN17660 2.0321, EN 12163 CW508L
  • MTBF - Mean Time Between Failures
  • MTTF - Mean Time To Failure
  • MTTFd - Mean Time To Failure dangerous - Average operating life, until up to 10 % of the considered units have failed dangerously
  • Multipole - Single connector connecting directly to the valve solenoids
  • N L/min - Nominal litres per minute - Nominal conditions are 0 degrees Celsius at 1 Atmosphere pressure
  • N/C - Normally Closed
  • N/O - Normally Open
  • NACE - National Association of Corrosion Engineers
  • Namur - Normen Arbeitgemeinschaft fur Mass Und Regeltechnik. A pneumatic interface standard used in the Process industry
  • NAS - Norgren Automation Solutions
  • NBR - Nitrile butadiene rubber - or nitrile rubber sometimes referred to as Buna-N is a synthetic rubber
  • NEMA - The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
  • Nm - Newton metres
  • non-relieving - Does not have the ability to release or exhaust e.g. A non-relieving regulator cannot exhaust downstream air if the secondary pressure rises above the pressure of the regulator
  • NPN - Negative, Positive, Negative. An NPN transistor receives positive voltage to the collector terminal and positive voltage to the base terminal for proper operation
  • NPT - National Pipe Taper - an American standard of Taper thread - not to be mixed with BSPT
  • NPTF - National Pipe Taper Fuel - a dryseal  American standard of Taper thread - not to be mixed with BSPT
  • NSF - Initially the National Sanitation Foundation, an organisation with standards and certifications in relation to Public Health
  • O.S.H.A. - Occupational Safety & Health Administration
  • O/D - Outside diameter
  • Oil-fog - Type of lubricator - oil-fog produces droplets of oil
  • Open loop - A system without feedback
  • Orifice - Hole or aperture
  • p.s.i. - pounds per square inch - a measure of pressure 
  • PA - Short for Polyamide - these are macromolecule structures with repeating units for example Nylon PA6
  • PBMO - Push Button Manual Override
  • PBT - Polybutylene terephthalate is a thermoplastic polymer
  • PED - Pressure Equipment Directive
  • Pg - Cable Gland - a standard set of sizes for cable glands in accordance with UTE C 68-300 and 68-311
  • PIF - Push In Fitting
  • pilot - Air signal 
  • PNP - Positive,Negative,Positive.  A PNP transistor receives positive voltage to the emitter terminal and a negative voltage at the base terminal 
  • Pneusim Pro - Circuit design and simulation software that used to be sold by Norgren
  • POF - Push on Fitting
  • POM - Short for Polyoxymethylene, often referred to as acetal, this is an engineering thermoplastic with high strength, and good hardness and rigidity characteristics
  • Poppet - A flat normally disc shape sealing system
  • Profibus DP - Process Field Bus - communication protocol for fieldbus system
  • Profinet - Process Field Net - Industrial Ethernet protocol standard maintained by Profibus and Profinet International
  • PTF - A short version of an NPTF thread
  • PTFE - Polytetrafluoroethylene is a synthetic fluorpolymer
  • PUWER - Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations
  • - ISO R thread also known as BSPT - British Standard Pipe Taper External thread to ISO 7
  • Rc - ISO Rc thread also known as BSPT - British Standard Pipe Taper Internal thread to ISO 7
  • Relieving - The ability to release or exhaust e.g. Relieving regulator will be able to exhaust downstream air if the secondary pressure rises above the pressure of the regulator
  • Repeatability - How close the output is when the input is applied, removed and re-applied
  • Ripple - Is a small residual periodic variation of the direct current output, formulating from the conversion of an originating alternating current source
  • RVM - Redundant Valve Manifold
  • SDMO - Screw Driver Manual Override
  • SIF - Safety Instrumented Function
  • SIL - Safety Integrity Level
  • Softseal - Spool system that uses elastomers to seal - usually higher flows than glandless
  • Sol - Solenoid
  • Solenoid - In terms of valves, this is the valve operator with the electric supply
  • Span - The maximum output pressure of a device e.g. 3-15psi
  • SPDT - Single Pole Double Throw - a simple changeover switch
  • Spring - Mechanical coil spring - will return to a known position
  • Sub-base - Sub-base valves allow you to replace valves quickly and easily, removing the valve from the base without disturbing pipework systems
  • System Valve - System Valves is another term for Valve Islands
  • T10d value - The time that 10% of the tested samples fail to danger (See also B10 & Mttfd)
  • Tiny Tim - Tiny Tim is the name given to a family of compact actuators manufactured in the USA
  • TUV - Technischer Überwachungsverein - a set of German organisations responsible for the validation of the safety of products
  • UL - Formerly Underwriters Laboratories UL is an American safety consulting and certification company
  • VA - volt ampere - used only in AC circuits, it gives the apparent power of the circuit.
  • Valve Island - Valve Islands are a collection of valves mounted into one assembly, reducing pipework, electrical connections and complexity
  • VDMA - Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau – VDMA (Mechanical Engineering Industry Association)
  • VDR - Voltage Dependant Resistor
  • Zero - Zero, 0 or nil - a value of zero or in terms of an output, no output detected

Find out more

Please enter your details below